Not all courses described will be offered during any one academic year. Students should consult semester schedules and registration information to select courses that reflect their interests and that will allow them to meet graduation requirements.
Unless a course is designated as a first year course, it requires the completion of the courses taken in the first two evening semesters of law school. Those courses are Civil Procedure, Contracts, Lawyering Skills & Values I & II, Property, and Torts. These prerequisites are not separately listed in the course descriptions below.
If a course has additional prerequisites or corequisites (which might include Constitutional Law I or Criminal Law), those are listed as part of the course description. Prerequisites and corequisites cannot be waived. Students are responsible for ensuring they have taken the prerequisites for any course or are enrolled in the corequisites for any course. Failure to have taken prerequisites and corequisites may result in involuntary withdrawal from a course, with a concomitant loss of credits and possible delay of graduation.
American Bar Association rules limit students’ eligibility for online and other distance learning courses. A student cannot take such a course until he/she has completed 28 credits. Students are then limited to no more than 4 credits in any semester and no more than 12 such credits toward the J.D.
Note: A student has completed a prerequisite if his or her record shows a grade (A through F or P/F) in the NSU system. Students who have not received a grade will be treated as completing a course only if the professor certifies to Student Affairs that the student has satisfied all course requirements other than the exam or final paper/project.
Administrative Law (3 Credits) LAW 0695Course focusing on the powers and structure of the administrative process in our constitutional system. Specific attention is given to the nature of the powers vested in administrative agencies, the problems of administrative procedure, and the scope of judicial review applicable in the context of agency rule-making and adjudication.
Recommended: Federal Jurisdiction
Admiralty (3 Credits) LAW 0800Course examining the law governing transportation on navigable waters. Topics discussed include: jurisdiction of federal and state courts to hear admiralty and maritime cases; personal injury and wrongful death claims; liability of carriers for damage to cargo; liability and damage arising from maritime collisions; chartering of vessels; salvage; and general average.
ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) Clinic (8 Credits) LAW 1036Fall clinic providing student interns with the opportunity to serve as third-party neutrals in dispute resolution. Students register for an in-house placement (LAW 1035 - 4 credits Pass/D/Fail) and two 2-credit courses: a skills and interdisciplinary/policy course (LAW 1037 - 2 credits graded) and a doctrinal law course (LAW 1036 - 2 credits graded).
Advanced Criminal Law: Federal Crimes (2 Credits) LAW 0776Course examining the prosecution and defense of federal crimes, including racketeering, drug trafficking, bank secrecy, mail fraud, perjury, and obstruction of justice. The course also covers elements of and defenses to substantive crimes and selected issues in the investigative process, such as plea bargaining, immunity, and sentencing.
Additional Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s): Evidence
Advanced Legal Analysis Lab (0 Credit) LAW 1013Required component of the Critical Skills Program, giving students in their final year of law school skills needed to prepare for the bar exam. It consists of weekly labs focusing on areas covered on the multistate portion of the bar exam and tested in multiple choice format.
Advanced Legal Analysis Workshop (0 Credit) LAW 1014Required component of the Critical Skills Programgiving students in their final year of law school skills needed to prepare for the bar exam. It consists of weekly workshops focusing on areas covered on the state portion of the bar exam and tested in multiple choice and essay format.
Advanced Legal Research Techniques (2 Credits) LAW 0677Course examining the application of advanced techniques of legal research to complex legal problems. Students develop and perfect their skills in using basic research sources and learn the use of advanced research sources not covered in Lawyering Skills and Values I & II.
Advanced Professional Responsibility Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0697ALSV Workshop exploring ethical and professionalism issues encountered in transactional and litigation practice. Students participate in simulations of disciplinary committee discussions and consider whether a self-regulated disciplinary system is effective.
Advanced Trial Advocacy (3 Credits) LAW 0893ALSV Workshop building upon the skills students have learned in the basic Trial Advocacy course. The focus is on advanced skills, including difficult witnesses, technology in the courtroom, damages in civil cases, and theory and theme selection. Students conduct direct and cross examinations, introduce evidence, make opening statements and closing arguments, and participate in two trials. The workshop is taught either in semester-long form or in a shorter, more-intensive format.
Agency (2 Credits) LAW 0920Course involving consideration of the ways in which one may incur liability for damages caused by the acts of others, particularly in the business setting, and of those circumstances which make it possible to take advantage of contracts into which one has not personally entered.
American Legal History Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0794Seminar exploring the intersection of law and history. Depending on the instructor, the course will survey the development of the American legal system; explore a particular historical period or topic; or allow students to select the specific historical issue to be examined. Accordingly, students are strongly encouraged to consult with the instructor prior to enrolling in the course.
Animal Law (2 Credits) LAW 0526Course examining the law of non-human animals. Topics include litigation concerning companion pets and therapy pets; veterinary malpractice; trusts for non-human beneficiaries; and animal cruelty and neglect statutes. Ethics, policy, and social justice play an important role in class discussions about competing values and viewpoints. As the field develops, the course will also address issues such as the classification of animal rights terrorists as domestic terrorists under the Patriot Act and judicial recognition of higher primates as legal persons.
Animal Law Legislation Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0795Seminar focusing on state and federal animal protection legislation including the Florida animal cruelty statute, as well as the Animal Welfare Act, Endangered Species Act, Horse Protection Act, Humane Methods of Slaughter Act, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Shark Finning Prohibition Act,] and Twenty-Eight Hour Law. Students will be required to write a paper identifying and analyzing either a problem with animal protection legislation or a gap in current laws and they must draft a statute or amendment that will resolve the problem or fill in the gap.
Antitrust Law (3 Credits) LAW 1019Course examining U.S. antitrust laws, principally the Sherman Act and the Clayton Act, and the manner in which the federal courts have interpreted these laws to promote competition
Appellate Practice Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0874ALSV Workshopexamining the process of appellate advocacy and appellate decisionmaking. Using simulation exercises, students explore whether the record of a completed litigation presents appealable questions and which issues to appeal. They also develop the techniques of effective brief writing and oral argument and learn the theory and practice of law making by appellate adjudication. *Please note that students cannot take both this course and the Judicial Opinion Writing Workshop during the same semester.
Art Law Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0643Seminar exploring the impact of traditional legal concepts as they relate to the particular needs of the artist. Topics include destruction, smuggling, and theft of art work; censorship and artistic freedom; and copyright. Not open to students who have taken the Art Law course
Bankruptcy Clinic (4 Credits) LAW 0963The Bankruptcy Clinic is a one semester, five to six credit course that combines a classroom component with students working on bankruptcy cases. Students enrolled in the Bankruptcy Clinic will represent actual clients in federal bankruptcy proceedings, as permitted by the Florida Limited Practice Act and the Rules of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida. The classroom component will examine the legal, social and ethical dimensions of bankruptcy law practice; and include instruction in the necessary legal skills and knowledge involved in federal bankruptcy law practice, such as client interviewing, legal analysis, drafting legal documents, arguing motions, professional responsibility, and various practice issues such as the choice of relief under state law or the Bankruptcy Code, relief from the automatic stay, objections to discharge and dischargeability, and confirmation of a chapter 13 plan. Students will also share developments and issues in their cases with other students during the classroom case rounds. A discussion of different cases will expose the other students to issues that may not arise in their cases and involve discussion of ethical concerns and other practice issues.
Pre-requisites: Professional Responsibility, Evidence, Bankruptcy Law. Recommended: Bankruptcy Workshop
Bankruptcy Clinic (1-2 Credits) LAW 0964The Bankruptcy Clinic is a one semester, four to six credit course that combines a classroom component with students working on bankruptcy cases. Students enrolled in the Bankruptcy Clinic will represent actual clients in federal bankruptcy proceedings, as permitted by the Florida Limited Practice Act and the Rules of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida. The classroom component will examine the legal, social and ethical dimensions of bankruptcy law practice; and include instruction in the necessary legal skills and knowledge involved in federal bankruptcy law practice, such as client interviewing, legal analysis, drafting legal documents, arguing motions, professional responsibility, and various practice issues such as the choice of relief under state law or the Bankruptcy Code, relief from the automatic stay, objections to discharge and dischargeability, and confirmation of a chapter 13 plan. Students will also share developments and issues in their cases with other students during the classroom case rounds. A discussion of different cases will expose the other students to issues that may not arise in their cases and involve discussion of ethical concerns and other practice issues. The course/clinic is only available to 3Ls (or 3L/4L evening division).
Pre-requisites: Professional Responsibility, Evidence, Bankruptcy Law. Recommended: Bankruptcy Workshop
Bankruptcy Law (3 Credits) LAW 0783Course surveying the rights and remedies of debtors and creditors in bankruptcy and under state law. Strategic considerations of alternative remedies are emphasized. This is a prerequisite for Bankruptcy Workshop and is not open to students who are taking or have taken Bankruptcy Workshop.
Bankruptcy Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0601ALSV Workshop examining the rights of creditors and debtors using simulations and exercises. Students assume the role of lawyers involved in bankruptcies and bankruptcy-related proceedings.
Bioethics Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0897Seminar exploring legal and ethical issues faced by patients and physicians as a result of developing medical technology. Topics include organ transplantation, genetic engineering, such end of life decisions as physician assisted suicide, reproductive rights including abortion, and experimentation on fetuses and other human subjects.
Business Entities (4 Credits) LAW 0516Course introducing the law of business organizations, including agency, partnership, limited liability companies, and business corporations. Topics include choice of entity, formation and structure of the entity, power and fiduciary responsibility of management, rights and liabilities of shareholders, corporate capital structure and finance, and shareholders' derivative litigation. Federal securities law is introduced. This is a required second year course for both day and evening students.
Business Planning Workshop (3 Credits) LAW 0807ALSV Workshop examining business problems, including choice of business entities; formation of corporations; business agreements, such as shareholders' agreements for closely-held corporations; and use of qualified deferred compensation agreements. The course also may cover recapitalizations, mergers, and other reorganizations and divisions. Problems are analyzed using principles of corporate or partnership law and federal tax law.
Business Practice Clinic Full time (12 Credits) LAW 0947Fall or Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to develop business skills in a corporate law office, business law firm, or government/administrative legal department under the mentorship of an experienced business law attorney. Students register for an external placement (LAW 0947 - 9 credits Pass/D/Fail for FT placements or LAW 0948 – 3 credits Pass/D/Fail for PT placements) and one 3-credit course (Practice & Perspectives - LAW 0949 - 3 credits Pass/D/Fail).
Business Practice Clinic Part Time (6 Credits) LAW 0948Fall or Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to develop business skills in a corporate law office, business law firm, or government/administrative legal department under the mentorship of an experienced business law attorney. Students register for an external placement (LAW 0947 - 9 credits Pass/D/Fail for FT placements or LAW 0948 – 3 credits Pass/D/Fail for PT placements) and one 3-credit course (Practice & Perspectives - LAW 0949 - 3 credits Pass/D/Fail).
Caribbean Law Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 4674This seminar examines the history and structure of Caribbean Legal Systems, its legal institutions, issues in human rights and colonial and post-colonial jurisprudential trends. While the course will focus on the Commonwealth Caribbean and nations associated with the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), it will also explore civil law traditions within the region.
Charitable Organizations Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 1051ALSV Workshop focusing on charitable organizations. Topics covered include choice of entity, formation and dissolution, director’s responsibilities, employees and volunteers, raising and spending money, and tax exemption. Not open to students who are taking or who have taken Nonprofit Organizations Workshop. Students may take this course and Nonprofit Organizations (LAW 0679) either concurrently or in different terms.
Child Fam Clin PT Inhouse LAW 0926
Child Fam Clin:Clin. Fam Law (2 Credits) LAW 0932Fall or Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to intern in a prosecutors or public defenders office, where they learn the practical aspects of trial preparation and may participate in actual trials. Students register for an external placement (LAW 0933 - 6 credits Pass/D/Fail) and three graded 2-credit courses: a skills course (Criminal Justice Clinic Problems - LAW 0935 - 2 credits graded), a doctrinal course (Advanced Criminal Procedure - LAW 0936 - 2 credits graded), and an interdisciplinary/policy course (Psychology and the Criminal Process - LAW 0934 - 2 credits graded).
Recommended: Criminal Pre-Trial Practice
Children and Families Clinic - Fall or Winter (12 Credits) LAW 005XFall or Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to serve as interns either in the NSU in-house clinic, under the supervision of NSU Law professor-practitioners, or in a legal-aid or government office that provides legal assistance to children and families. Students register for an in-house or external placement (LAW 0929 - 6 credits Pass/D/Fail) and three 2-credit courses: a skills course (Advanced Practice Skills - LAW 0930 - 2 credits graded), a doctrinal course (Clinical Family Law - LAW 0932 - 2 credits graded), and a policy course (Children's Legal Rights - LAW 0931 - 2 credits graded).
Children and Families Clinic – Winter Part-Time (6 Credits) LAW 006XPart-time Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to serve as interns in the NSU in-house clinic, under the supervision of NSU Law professor-practitioners. Students register for the in-house placement (LAW 0926 - 3 credits Pass/D/Fail) and a 3-credit course(Clinical Family Law - LAW 0927 - 3 credits graded).
Children Family Clinic: Adv Prac Skills LAW 0930
Civil Pre-Trial Practice (3 Credits) LAW 0517ALSV Workshop involving simulation of the pre-trial process. Students participate in motion hearings and oral depositions. They also draft attorney fee agreements, pleadings, written discovery, motions and accompanying memoranda of law, a final pre-trial order, and jury instructions. This workshop is required for all students in the Litigation Track.
Civil Procedure (4 Credits) LAW 0652Course introducing the theory and mechanics of enforcing substantive rights through civil litigation. Major concepts emphasized include the jurisdiction of state and federal courts; pleadings and pre-trial motions; discovery; post-trial motions; and the appellate process. This is a required first year course for day and evening students.
Civil Rights Litigation Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0615Seminar exploring the history and current scope of 42 USC §§ 1981-1985 as remedies for constitutional deprivations and as a means to enforce statutory rights. The course considers both actions for injunctive relief and actions for damages and examines the defenses available to individual defendants and governmental bodies.
Civil Rights Practice Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 4673ALSV Workshop is to provide students with a working knowledge of civil rights litigation with respect to law enforcement agencies and the cities or government agencies that employ them. The topics to be covered include pre-suit discovery, as well as, pre-trial and trial litigation.
Collaborative Family Law Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 2005This ALSV Workshop introduces students to a non-adversarial method of resolving disputes in the Family Law context. Collaborative law is multi-disciplinary in nature; therefore, students would learn how the various professionals interact to resolve problems and issues faced by divorcing or divorced couples. Through reading assignments, class participation, lectures, and role-play simulations, students will learn the basic foundation of Collaborative Family Law practice. The workshop element of the course would allow students to take a hypothetical case from beginning to end.
Recommended: Family Law Litigation Workshop
Comparative Corporate Governance Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 1060Seminar examining and comparing the structure, objectives, and mechanism of corporate governance. The U.S. corporate governance structure is compared with that of England, Germany, and a developing country such as Cameroon in areas such as monitoring and legal compliance, executive compensation, takeovers, derivative litigation and enforcement of director duties, shareholder activism, and competition for corporate chartering.
Comparative Law Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0668Seminar examining and comparing the history, structure, and institutions of civil law, common law, and other legal traditions in Europe, Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In certain years, the seminar may focus on one or more specific legal regimes.
Condominium Law (3 Credits) LAW 0866Course examining the legal and practical considerations in selecting the condominium format of development. The course includes an in-depth look at condominium operations, from board liability and responsibility to enforcement of covenants and restrictions.
Conflict of Laws (3 Credits) LAW 0693Course emphasizing choice of governing law in cases involving multi-jurisdictional elements. The focus is on analyzing when a court may or should adopt the law of another jurisdiction. Other topics studied include the state's obligation to recognize the judgments of sister states and the limits of personal jurisdiction.
Constitutional Decisionmaking Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0797Seminar developing an understanding of the dynamics of the judicial decisionmaking processes of the U.S. Supreme Court. Topics covered include constitutional treatment of race and gender, presidential powers and the war on terrorism, and the welfare state.
Constitutional Law I (4 Credits) LAW 0625Course examining the Constitution of the United States, its interpretation, and its application. Topics include developments relating to judicial review of legislative action, problems of federalism, limits on the power of government regulation, and the protection of civil and political rights. This is a required first year course for day students and a required second year course for evening students.
Constitutional Law II (2 Credits) LAW 0629Course involving in-depth consideration of the federal constitutional protection of freedom of speech and freedom of religion, with emphasis on freedom of speech in the political context. This is a required second year course for day students and a required third year course for evening students.
Construction Law (2 Credits) LAW 0919Course investigating the construction process and the legal relationships among the participants. Topics include construction contracts, bidding on contracts, contracts with architects and engineers, liens, and responsibility for payment and for defects.
Consumer Protection (3 Credits) LAW 0504Course examining the regulation of unfair and deceptive trade practices under the common law, the Federal Trade Commission Act, administrative regulations and decisions, policy statements, and the Florida Unfair and Deceptive Trade Practices Act. Students who take this course during a Fall or Winter semester must perform 24 hours of volunteer work at the Broward County Consumer Affairs Department during that semester. Consumer Protection is an internship program when offered in the summer. Students enroll in both a 1-credit course (LAW 2002) and a 2-credit internship (LAW 2003).
Contracts (4 Credits) LAW 0612Course providing a comprehensive study of the creation, transfer, and termination of contract rights and duties. This is a required first year course for day and evening students.
Copyrights and Trademarks (3 Credits) LAW 0816Course examining the protection available for original works of authorship (including literary, artistic, and musical works, as well as computer programs) under the federal Copyright Act, and of the protection available for trademarks under state and federal law. With respect to both copyright and trademark law, we consider: what is potentially protectable, the requirements for protection, the extent of that protection, how infringement is proven, and defenses that may be raised by an alleged infringer.
Corporate Finance (3 Credits) LAW 1047Course surveying corporate finance and the process of capital formation, debt, preferred stocks, convertible securities, distributions, and acquisitions.
Corporate Tax (3 Credits) LAW 0769Course examining corporate tax law, including formation, operation, and receipt of recurring and liquidating distributions.
Corporate Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0748ALSV Workshop involving issues that arise in a corporate setting. Depending on the instructor’s focus, which will be announced in advance of registration, this workshop may cover venture capital financing, initial public offerings, reorganizations or mergers, securities arbitration, or other relevant topics. Students will draft documents and engage in role-playing appropriate to the workshop’s focus.
Recommended: Income Tax, Securities Regulation, and Corporate Tax will be helpful if taken before or concurrently with Corporate Workshop.
Criminal Justice Clinic - Fall or Winter (12 Credits) LAW 0933Fall or Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to intern in a prosecutors or public defenders office, where they learn the practical aspects of trial preparation and may participate in actual trials. Students register for an external placement (LAW 0933 - 6 credits Pass/D/Fail) and three graded 2-credit courses: a skills course (Criminal Justice Clinic Problems - LAW 0935 - 2 credits graded), a doctrinal course (Advanced Criminal Procedure - LAW 0936 - 2 credits graded), and an interdisciplinary/policy course (Psychology and the Criminal Process - LAW 0934 - 2 credits graded).
Recommended: Criminal Pre-Trial Practice
Criminal Law (4 Credits) LAW 0670Course examining basic principles of American criminal law: definition of crimes, criminal responsibility, defenses, proof, and punishment. This is a required first year course for day students and a required second year course for evening students.
Criminal Pre-Trial Practice (2 Credits) LAW 0711ALSV Workshop involving simulation of pre-trial practice in a criminal law context.
Criminal Procedure (3 Credits) LAW 0645Course introducing the basic Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendment constitutional doctrines that govern the investigative and pre-trial stages of the criminal justice system. Students may use Criminal Procedure to satisfy their two-out-of-three menu requirement. This is a second year preference course for day and evening students.
Current Constitutional Issues Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0796Seminar examining current issues in American constitutional law. Past topics have included Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, Gender Discrimination, The Patriot Act, AIDS Law, and Racial Discrimination. This seminar may be offered under a different course number tied to a particular constitutional issue.
Defamation, Privacy and Publicity (3 Credits) LAW 0642Course examining the law relating to economic torts. It covers deceit, defamation, business defamation, product disparagement, interference with contractual obligation, invasion of privacy, abuse of the judicial system, and civil rights torts. The course concludes with a study of issues of current concern, such as tort reform.
Dependency Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 2001ALSV Workshop examining dependency court practices and procedure governing cases of alleged child abuse and neglect, from filing of the initial shelter petition through termination of parental rights. Through assigned readings, discussions, writing assignments, and simulated dependency hearings, students learn both effective representation of children and case file management. The optional fieldwork portion of this workshop provides students with the opportunity to participate in the representation of children in the Broward County Guardian Ad Litem Program. Not open to students who have taken Guardian Ad Litem (LAW 0808) before Fall 2005.
Domestic Violence Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0694ALSV Workshop examining domestic violence issues from the perspective of law practice in a variety of doctrinal areas. Areas of coverage may include issues related to family law, civil procedure, evidence, criminal law, constitutional law, tort law, immigration, cross-cultural and same-sex relationships, professional responsibility, and alternative dispute resolution.
Education Law Seminar: Higher Education (2 Credits) LAW 0923Seminar examining the legal issues surrounding colleges and universities. Topics include the creation, operation, and dissolution of schools; the hiring and firing of faculty; and the admission, instruction, and dismissal of students.
Education Law Seminar: K-12 (2 Credits) LAW 0901Seminar taught in a survey format that begins with an analysis of the fundamental political and philosophical principles underlying the American educational system. The seminar will focus exclusively on current legal problems in elementary/secondary education. Students will then be challenged to apply fundamental educational philosophies to difficult areas of elementary/secondary education such as: the limits of compulsory education; the right to a public education; issues relating to campus safety and privacy; striking the balance between federal control through statutes and state control over curriculum; the rights and responsibilities of students; and the traditional and novel torts in the educational environment.
Elder Law Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0737Seminar involving study of a broad range of doctrinal and policy issues having a strong impact on the elderly in the United States. In addition to focusing on doctrinal law, the seminar employs an interdisciplinary approach to highlight the unique aspects of elder law and emphasize the ethical and professional issues faced by attorneys representing older clients.
Electoral Process (2 Credits) LAW 0602Course examining the American electoral system. Topics include local governance and the role of political parties, preclearance and the Voting Rights Act, majority rule and minority vote dilution, redistricting, campaign finance, and Bush v. Gore.
Elements of Legal Analysis I (0 Credit) LAW 1088Fall semester second-year component of the Critical Skills Program. ELA I is mandatory for any student whose overall GPA was below 2.6 after his/her first two semesters of law school. ELA I consists of individualized sessions, small group sessions, workshops, and writing labs, all of which are designed to enhance the skills necessary to successfully complete law school and become licensed to practice law. ELA I is also available to any student in his or her first semester of the second year, regardless of GPA.
Elements of Legal Analysis II (0 Credit) LAW 1089Winter semester second-year component of the Critical Skills Program. ELA II is mandatory for any student whose overall GPA is below 2.6 after his/her first three semesters of law school. It is also mandatory for any student whose GPA was below 2.60 in each of the first two semesters of law school irrespective of GPA after the third semester of law school. ELA II consists of individualized sessions, small group sessions, workshops, and writing labs, all of which are designed to enhance the skills necessary to successfully complete law school and become licensed to practice law. It is also available for any student in his or her second semester of the second year, regardless of GPA.
Eminent Domain (3 Credits) LAW 1075Course providing an overview of eminent domain proceedings. Students learn to handle a simple condemnation action and to find, analyze, and apply the law in this area. Topics covered include: authority of the condemning agency to exercise power; public purpose doctrine; necessity for the taking; administrative considerations; order of taking; pre-trial and trial preparation and procedures; and inverse condemnation issues and private property rights protection as they affect the condemnation proceeding. Florida law is addressed as well.
Employee Benefits Law Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 1053ALSV Workshop introducing the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and employee benefit provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. The workshop raises issues encountered by lawyers practicing in the fields of civil rights, domestic relations, bankruptcy, labor, or corporate and securities, through a series of practice-oriented research and drafting assignments regarding retirement, health, and other employee benefit plans.
Employment Discrimination (3 Credits) LAW 0633Course surveying federal law prohibiting discrimination in employment on the basis of race, national origin, sex, age, and disability. The course focuses principally on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and secondarily on the Equal Pay Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Reconstruction Era civil rights statutes.
Employment Law (3 Credits) LAW 0632Course examining the rights of individual employees in mostly non-union settings. The course covers a wide array of federal laws governing most employees, including minimum wage laws, the Family Medical Leave Act, workers' compensation, unemployment compensation, pension law, and employment discrimination law.
Energy Law (2 Credits) LAW 4676Course exposing students to critical legal and economic issues involved in energy regulation, with a focus on the regulation of electricity. Specifically, the course will examine the history, evolution, and practice of electricity regulation and rate-making. It will consider regulation of "traditional" energy sources, such as coal, natural gas, and nuclear power, as well as the legal aspects of alternative energy sources, such as solar and wind energy. It will also examine state, federal, and international policies intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Entertainment Law (2 Credits) LAW 1048Course surveying legal doctrines involved in entertainment litigation and transactions, including artistic control, credit and attribution, compensation, and legal issues arising from evolving entertainment technology. Recommended: Copyright or Copyrights and Trademarks. Not open to students who have taken a combined Sports & Entertainment Law course.
Environmental and Land Use Clinic - Fall or Winter (12 Credits) LAW 008XFall or Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to serve as interns in-house on complex litigation matters under the supervision of NSU Law professor-practitioners or externally with government offices or private law firms specializing in environmental issues. Students register for an in-house or external placement (LAW 0951 - 6 credits Pass/D/Fail), and three 2-credit courses: a skills course (Environmental and Land Use Practice and Procedure - LAW 0952 - 2 credits graded), a doctrinal course (Advanced Environmental and Land Use Law - LAW 0953 - 2 credits graded), and an interdisciplinary/policy course (Environmental Science and the Lawyering Process - LAW 0954 - 2 credits graded).
Environmental Enforcement Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0780Seminar that surveys those aspects of the law that pertain to the enforcement of environmental laws by federal, state and local government officials and private citizens. The seminar will begin with an introductory overview of some general issues in the field, including questions of environmental federalism, how to measure environmental success, and environmental justice considerations. It will then cover the legal issues that arise from self-reporting of compliance information by regulated entities, and site investigations by government inspectors. From there the seminar will survey legal aspects of administrative enforcement, civil judicial enforcement, enforcement of waste site liability, criminal enforcement and citizen suit enforcement. Finally, the seminar will consider compliance assistance, compliance incentives other than direct enforcement, and various alternatives to traditional enforcement methods. Students will be required to prepare a 25 page term paper on some legal aspect of environmental enforcement. Towards the end of the semester, they will also be required to do a 20 minute presentation to the rest of the seminar regarding their research project. Prerequisite(s): Constitutional Law I
Environmental Law (2 Credits) LAW 0771Course emphasizing federal legislation aimed at controlling pollution and protecting the human environment. Topics include: the nature, effects, and legal control of air and water pollution; regulation of wetlands dredging and development; and protection of land and groundwater from hazardous waste contamination. The course also considers selected common law doctrines, judicial review of agency decisionmaking, and practical issues arising in environmental disputes.
Estate and Gift Tax (3 Credits) LAW 0715Course providing an intensive examination of the federal estate and gift tax laws, key related income tax provisions, and selected issues of estate law policy.
Recommended: Income Tax (LAW 0701 or LAW 0702).
Estate Planning Workshop (3 Credits) LAW 0725ALSV Workshop involving a practice-oriented study of estate planning, including estate, gift, and income tax aspects, with concentrations on the marital deduction and unified credit, use of revocable trusts, and drafting.
Evidence (4 Credits) LAW 0614Course considering rules relating to methods of proof of disputed facts, including competency, privileges, examination of witnesses, relevance, hearsay, and principal rules of exclusion. This is a required second year course for day students and a required third year course for evening students.
Family Law (3 Credits) LAW 0635Course covering the law regarding the family relationship - including the rights and responsibilities of parents, spouses, grandparents, and children - and the creation and dissolution of the family. Topics include adoption, spouse and child abuse, alimony, property distribution, child support, and child custody. Students may use Family Law to satisfy their two-out-of-three menu requirement. This is a second year preference course for day students and evening students.
Family Law Litigation Workshop (3 Credits) LAW 0686ALSV Workshop workshop involving issues and problems involved in the litigation of marital dissolutions. Students explore all stages from initial client interview, pre-trial motions, and discovery, through trial, property settlement, and post judgment relief.
Federal Jurisdiction (3 Credits) LAW 0685Course examining the jurisdiction of the federal courts. The course considers the source of federal jurisdiction, constitutional and statutory limits, problems of federalism, and appellate and collateral review.
FLA. Law Certificate Program (0 Credit) LAW 1100
Florida Bar Auxiliary Program (0 Credit) LAW 1200
Florida Constitutional Law (3 Credits) LAW 0775Course surveying the organic law of the State of Florida, with special emphasis on legislative and executive powers, organization and powers of the judiciary, finance and taxation, and local government. Students also learn the state's history and organizational scheme and the various entities that affect the public and private lives of citizens.
Florida Land Development Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 1016ALSV Workshop in which students participate in mock permitting hearings and negotiations with respect to a hypothetical land development project in Florida. The workshop introduces students to state, regional, and local permitting processes that are implicated in major land development projects in Florida.
Gambling Law (2 Credits) LAW 0525Course examining the history, current status, and future prospects of gambling laws in Florida and throughout the United States, with considerable attention devoted to the methods used by states and the federal government to ensure the integrity of the gaming industry and suppress its attendant ills (including compulsive gambling and organized crime). Although the course focuses primarily on casinos, considerable time is spent discussing lotteries, pari-mutuel wagering, and sports bookmaking.
Goodwin Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 1078Seminar exploring emerging issues of law, led by a faculty member and distinguished experts in law and other disciplines. Past topics have included Tradewinds in Caribbean Law, Securities Law and Policy, International Human Rights in the 21st Century, and Media Intrusion into Private Lives. Students prepare a paper on a topic related to the seminar topic. Registration materials will list the current seminar, which may have a different course number, and any prerequisites or corequisites.
Health Care Compliance (3 Credits) LAW 4682Course examining the federal and state laws relating to health care compliance, including fraud, anti-kickback, HIPAA/HITECH Act, Stark, federal health care reform legislation, and state law counterparts as applied to transactions and relationships in the health care industry. Prerequisite(s): Health Care Organizations, Regulation and Access
Health Care Organizations, Regulation and Access (3 Credits) LAW 0997Course surveys the statutes, regulations, cases, legal issues, and policy considerations facing health care professionals, providers, and consumers in a rapidly changing field. Topics include an overview of the American health care enterprise and health care delivery models; the impact of federal health care reform legislation; the regulation of health care institutions for quality and safety; liability of health care institutions; issues relating to access to health care services and health care cost and payment including the duty to provide care, heath care insurance and managed care; ERISA; Medicare and Medicaid; professional relationships and structures; and operational and business aspects including fraud and abuse, competition and antitrust, human subjects research, and technology and the globalization of health care services.
Health Law Workshop (3 Credits) LAW 1044ALSV Workshop providing hands-on drafting experience along with an examination of the structures for payment of health care costs from three different, but related, perspectives: health insurance and managed care organizations, health care providers (physicians and hospitals) and patients. This workshop covers the history of health insurance and the emergence and structures of managed care, as well as the criticisms of managed care and the developing alternatives. It also considers applicable federal and state laws such as ERISA, the federal HMO Act, and federal health care reform legislation, as well as evolving case law.
Health Policy, Bioethics and Quality of Care (3 Credits) LAW 4677Course surveys the health law policy considerations, bioethics issues and mechanisms for assuring quality of health care that challenge health care professionals, providers, and consumers in a rapidly changing field. Bioethics topics include death and dying; modern reproductive issues including fetal and maternal decision making, assisted reproduction, cloning and human genetics; justice in health care access and coverage; and organ donation/transplantation. The course also surveys the major mechanisms assuring the quality of health care including regulation of health professionals and related discipline or quality matters; the professional-patient relationship including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality and human subject research; and liability of health professionals and organizations. Not open to students who have taken Health Law, Law 0997
Immigration, Nationality, and Refugee Law (2 Credits) LAW 0723Course examining the key issues, policies, and regulations governing the entrance of persons into the United States, including status, classification, preferences, asylum, and review.
Income Tax (3 Credits) LAW 0701Course introducing basic concepts of federal income taxation: gross income; exemptions, deductions, and credits; timing and other problems involving accounting methods; capital gains and losses; and assignment of income. This course is a Fall semester second year preference course for day students and is offered every Fall semester for third and fourth year evening students. This course is a Fall semester second year preference course for day students and is offered every Fall semester for third and fourth year evening students. Not open to students who are taking or have taken Introduction to Income Tax (LAW 0702).
Insurance (3 Credits) LAW 0830Course examining principles of insurance law and providing an overview of life, fire, casualty, and marine insurance. Topics include negotiation and settlement of insurance claims and frequently litigated conditions and exclusions in insurance contracts.
International Business Transactions (3 Credits) LAW 0837Course surveying legal issues involved in international commercial transactions. Topics include letters of credit, bills of lading, COGSA, customs, GATT, export regulation, and remedies for unfair international trade practices. The online version (LAW 4837) is subject to the limitations applied to distance learning courses, which are included in the Code of Academic Regulations.
International Law (3 Credits) LAW 0840Course introducing the international legal system and the way in which international law and international legal institutions shape relations between states. Topics include the legal relationship between nations, the nature and sources of international law, international organizations, the International Court of Justice, and current international law issues.
International Law Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0843Seminar dealing with international law and the use of force by states. While the course provides an overview of how public international law has attempted to regulate the resort to war by governments (including WWI, WW2, Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, Panama, the Gulf), it will focus somewhat more specifically on Balkan wars.
International Litigation (3 Credits) LAW 0842Course examining the special problems that can arise when a U.S. court is called on to decide an international civil dispute. Topics covered include personal and subject matter jurisdiction, service of process, conflicts of law and forum non conveniens, foreign sovereign immunity and the act of state doctrine, parallel proceedings, extraterritorial discovery, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, and forum selection and arbitration clauses.
International Practice Clinic Full Time (12 Credits) LAW 0980Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to intern with international humanitarian organizations or private law firms specializing in international business law or in immigration law. Students register for an external placement (LAW 0980 - 8 credits Pass/D/Fail for FT placements or LAW 0981 – 4 credits Pass/D/Fail for PT placements), a 3-credit courses (International Legal Practice - LAW 0982 – 3 credit graded), and a 1-credit biweekly course (LAW 0983 1 credit).
International Practice Clinic Part Time (8 Credits) LAW 0981Winter clinic giving students an opportunity to intern with international humanitarian organizations or private law firms specializing in international business law or in immigration law. Students register for an external placement (LAW 0980 - 8 credits Pass/D/Fail for FT placements or LAW 0981 – 4 credits Pass/D/Fail for PT placements), a 3-credit courses (International Legal Practice - LAW 0982 – 3 credit graded), and a 1-credit biweekly course (LAW 0983 1 credit).
International Protection of Human Rights (3 Credits) LAW 0722Course introducing the institutions and legal framework for the international protection of human rights, including UN and regional systems for human rights protection. The course also focuses on the legal role of the state and the individual in the global community and compares U.S. domestic law with the emerging law of human rights. Not open to students who are taking or have taken the International Protection of Human Rights Seminar (LAW 0617).
International Regulation of Trade (2 Credits) LAW 0514Course focusing on the international rules and organizations that attempt to regulate trade and investment between nations. Topics include: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT); the World Trade Organization (WTO); free trade agreements such as NAFTA; customs unions such as the European Union; and U.S. institutions involved with international trade.
International Sales & Arbitration (3 Credits) LAW 0833Course focusing on a number of selected issues particularly relevant in international sales contracts such as contracts formation, breach, remedies, damages, force majeure and hardship, exemption clauses, etc. These issues will be examined under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), to some extent the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts). The Arbitration component will introduce students to international commercial arbitration by examining the legal basis for international commercial arbitration, emphasizing the Federal Arbitration Act, the UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards and the UNCITRAL Model Law and Rules, which form the basis for the rules used by most international arbitration tribunals.
Interviewing and Counseling (2 Credits) LAW 1062ALSV Workshop examining and developing the skills involved in investigating facts and interviewing and counseling clients. Instructional techniques include readings, discussions, audiovisual presentations, and extensive participation in role-plays and simulations. Students also investigate doctrinal and procedural issues in order to discharge effectively their role in each step of the process. Not open to students who are taking or have taken Interviewing, Counseling, and Negotiating (LAW 0665).
Interviewing, Counseling, and Negotiating (3 Credits) LAW 0665ALSV Workshop examining and developing skills involved in investigating facts, interviewing and counseling clients, settling disputes, and negotiating transactions. Instructional techniques include readings, discussions, audiovisual presentations, and extensive participation in role-plays and simulations. Students also investigate doctrinal, procedural, and evidentiary issues in order to discharge effectively their role in each step of the process. Not open to students who are taking or have taken Negotiating Workshop (LAW 0672), Negotiating Workshop Online (LAW 4672), or Interviewing and Counseling (LAW 1062).
Int'l Citator Bd of Editors (0 Credit) LAW 1810
Int'l Citator Staff (0 Credit) LAW 1811
Introduction to EU Law (2 Credits) LAW 1071Course examining the law and legal structures of the European Union. Topics include: the legislative, administrative, and judicial structure of the EU; allocation of power between EU and member states; relationships with nonmember states; and rights of EU citizens.
Introduction to Spanish Law (1 Credit) LAW 0513Online course taught in Spanish by professors from the University of Barcelona, introducing different aspects of Spanish law, e.g., constitutional law, civil law, and civil procedure; European community law; and the geography and history of Spain. The course is taught every Fall semester, in a five-week period, following the end of the Selected Topics in Spanish Law course. This is a required course for students interested in participating in the NSU-UB dual degree program. It is an elective for all other students. This course is subject to the limitations applied to distance learning courses, which are included in the Code of Academic Regulations.
Introduction to the Fourth Amendment (0 Credit) LAW 0020AAMPLE® course that covers the basic principles and arguments concerning the Fourth Amendment and the exclusionary rule using the case method. This course cannot be used in lieu of Criminal Procedure for satisfying the second year menu option.
Jewish Law Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 1074Seminar exploring aspects of Jewish law that involve the relationship of human beings to one another and within the context of society. The seminar considers traditional texts, including the Tanakh and the Talmud, and canons of interpretation (legal hermeneutics). Specific topics include criminal law (capital punishment), family law (get or bill of divorce), estate planning (inter vivos and testamentary gifts), debtor-creditor law (prohibition against interest and sabbatical year), humane laws and duties (duty to rescue), and constitutional issues regarding application of Jewish law in the United States.
Judicial Internship (2 Credits) LAW 0734External placement offering students an opportunity to serve as research clerks to state trial and appellate court judges, federal magistrates, and federal court judges. Students must register for both the Judicial Internship (LAW 0734 - 2 credits Pass/D/Fail) and a Judicial Internship Class (LAW 0719 - 1 credit graded). The class surveys the operation of U.S. courts, the goals and pressures of the judicial system, the function of juries, judicial powers and methods, and the judiciary's role in law reform.
Judicial Internship Class (1 Credit) LAW 0719External placement offering students an opportunity to serve as research clerks to state trial and appellate court judges, federal magistrates, and federal court judges. Students must register for both the Judicial Internship (LAW 0734 - 2 credits Pass/D/Fail) and a Judicial Internship Class (LAW 0719 - 1 credit graded). The class surveys the operation of U.S. courts, the goals and pressures of the judicial system, the function of juries, judicial powers and methods, and the judiciary's role in law reform.
Judicial Opinion Writing Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0962Designed for students who are interested in practicing appellate law, including those who would like to intern or clerk for a judge, this workshop focuses on the art of judicial opinion writing. The course will provide a general overview of the following topics: the role of judicial law clerks; the role and function of judicial opinions in our legal system; the judicial decision-making process and the different types of judicial opinions; the structure and anatomy of judicial opinions; and the style and rhetoric of judicial opinions. Against the backdrop of these topics, each student will then be required to prepare a draft judicial opinion after reviewing appellate briefs that have been submitted in an actual case. *Please note that students cannot take both this course and the Appellate Practice Workshop during the same semester.
Jurisprudence Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0735Seminar examining the relationship between selected areas of western philosophy and the specific concerns of legal philosophy. Topics include knowledge and truth; minds, bodies and persons; ethics and moral responsibility; and philosophy and religion.
Juvenile Law (3 Credits) LAW 0506Course examining the juvenile justice system, focusing on issues of delinquency, dependency (abuse and neglect), and status offenses (non-criminal misbehavior).
Labor Law (3 Credits) LAW 0750Course surveying federal law governing labor-management relations, including union representation, collective bargaining, strikes, and lockouts.
Landlord Tenant Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 1070ALSV Workshop continuing the study of landlord and tenant law begun in the basic course on property. Students draft and negotiate a lease in order to gain greater understanding of both commercial and residential relationships.
Law & Psychiatry (3 Credits) LAW 0894Course that provides students with an opportunity to learn about the relationship between the legal and mental health systems. Topics covered include the professional liability of psychotherapists, issues of confidentiality and mandatory reporting, dangerousness, psychiatrists in the criminal justice system (e.g., competency to stand trial, insanity defense, guilty but mentally ill, mental disorder and specific mens rea elements of crime, disposition of persons found NGRI, competence to be executed), civil commitment, psychopharmacology and the law, rights of those involuntarily civilly committed, psychiatrists and expert testimony, and theories of responsibility (psychological, moral, social, biological, and so forth).
Law and Economics Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0999A basic definition of economics is the study of the efficient allocation of resources. Central to the field of economics is understanding the use of incentives and disincentives in striving for optimal efficiencies. While it is clear that, whether it be drug law, tort reform, traffic enforcement, or any other area of the law, the laws we live by are based on incentives and disincentives imposed upon us, yet the consequences of these laws can be significantly different than what was intended. It is with this understanding that the importance of economic analysis as applied to the law will be clear.
Law and Literature Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0718Seminar examining the interrelationship of literature and the law. The seminar considers how attorneys may use literary techniques and devices and how literary themes influence the life and practice of the lawyer. It compares approaches of the law and literature to various problems, noting when the human element can properly serve as a tool for the lawyer. Students learn the need for good writing technique in legal documents. Readings come predominantly from poetry, short stories, and drama.
Law and Medicine Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0895Seminar examining the interrelationship between the professions of law and medicine in a variety of contexts.
Law of E-commerce (3 Credits) LAW 0500Course that will provide an introduction to the legal and policy issues raised by electronic commerce. Specifically, the course will discuss the legal requirements of electronic commerce including issues such as jurisdiction, choice of laws and conflict of laws, trademark and domain names, cybersquatting, electronic contracting (i.e., click-wrap and shrink-wrap agreements), electronic auctions, electronic payments, taxation, online dispute resolution, data protection, tort, defamation, constitutional law, online privacy issues, intellectual property, procedural, domestic and international conflicts and regulation.
Law Office Management Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0651ALSV Workshop providing hands-on experience in the practical aspects of organizing a law practice. The workshop is divided into units covering The Office and Its Technology, Bar Grievances and Attorney Malpractice, Trust Accounting in Florida, Good Billing Practices, Marketing, and Small Firm Survival. Included in these units are concepts useful in litigation and transactional practice, such as corporate structure, real estate contracts, employment procedures, and office infrastructure.
Law, Finance & Markets Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 4678This seminar considers law, regulatory policy, and public finance during critical periods and turning points in U.S. history. Major legal developments, legislative programs and public policies from the perspective of various disciplines will be discussed. Competing theories, doctrines, and models, will be analyzed while testing their validity against empirical evidence and financial market developments. Prerequisite(s): Business Entities
Lawyering Skills and Values I (3 Credits) LAW 0753Course integrating legal theory with practice, professionalism, and technology in a transactional setting. LSV I combines instruction in legal research, writing, and analysis with other practical lawyering skills while focusing on predictive legal analysis. Case files are used to develop problem-solving strategies, conduct legal research, draft legal memoranda, and negotiate a settlement of a transactional case. This is a required first year course for day and evening students.
Lawyering Skills and Values II (3 Credits) LAW 0754Course integrating legal theory with practice, professionalism, and technology in a pre-trial litigation setting. As students work through a case file, they interview clients, draft demand letters, client letters, pleadings and motions, research and write pre-trial memoranda, develop persuasive writing skills, counsel clients, orally argue a motion, and participate in court-ordered mediation. This is a required first year course for day and evening students who have received a passing grade in LSV I. Students who do not receive a passing grade in LSV I during the first year must take LSV II the first time it is offered after they receive a passing grade in LSV I. Prerequisite(s): Passing grade in Lawyering Skills and Values I (LSV I).
Lawyers as Advocates: Rhetoric, Modes of Persuasion & Public Policy Campaigns (2 Credits) LAW 1000ALSV Workshop designed to analyze how lawyers can change the law in and out of the courtroom. The workshop will analyze classic rhetorical techniques and examine the various modes used to change public opinion. The workshop will dissect different public policy campaigns to teach persuasion by: (1) analyzing the rhetorical strategies used by these campaigns; (2) examining the various methods these campaigns use to impact public policy (i.e., technology, media, protest); and (3) discussing the ethical and moral issues presented by the strategies and methods used by the campaigns. This workshop will also require the students apply these strategies and methods by drafting various persuasive documents and developing a small public policy campaign.
Legal Drafting Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0752ALSV Workshop in which students prepare documents in the context of ongoing transactions.
Legal Malpractice (2 Credits) LAW 4679Course examining the prosecution and defense of legal malpractice claims. In addition to exploring the various bases of lawyer liability, the course looks at means for preventing and paying for legal malpractice. Prerequisite(s): Professional Responsibility
Legal Study Skills I (0 Credit) LAW 0523Fall semester first-year component of the Critical Skills Program, addressing and developing essential skills. Legal Study Skills I begins in Orientation with classes describing the stages of a lawsuit, court structure, case structure, case briefing, and synthesis. It continues through the Fall semester with small group sessions teaching the skills necessary to succeed in the early stages of law school. This is a required first year course for day and evening students.
Legal Study Skills II (0 Credit) LAW 0527Students who do not attain a cumulative GPA of 2.70 or better in their first semester must satisfactorily complete Legal Study Skills II. Other students may elect to enroll in Legal Study Skills II. Winter semester first-year component of the Critical Skills Program, addressing and developing essential skills. Legal Study Skills II first entails learning from the first semester exams and reviewing class preparation, note taking, and outlining. It then turns to preparing for exams. This is a required first year course for day and evening students who do not attain a cumulative GPA of 2.70 or better in their first semester.
Legislation Seminar (2 Credits) LAW 0859Seminar focusing on how courts interpret statutes and how the methods and tools of interpretation are related to the process by which statutes come into existence. Each student will write a research paper, present that paper to the group, and participate in a legislative simulation.
Mediation Workshop (2 Credits) LAW 0522ALSV Workshop teaching students the theory of mediation. Students develop and practice mediation skills while observing and mediating actual cases. They also study ethical and legal issues arising from the mediation process and resulting roles and obligations. This workshop is a second year preference course.
Medical Malpractice (2 Credits) LAW 0873Course providing students with an overview of medical malpractice litigation from the plaintiff and defendant perspective. In particular, this course will examine the Florida Medical Malpractice statute and other related tort law concepts.
Additional Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s): Evidence